Tardive Dyskinesia

Tardive Dyskinesia: Overview

Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological syndrome caused by the long-term use of neuroleptic drugs.  Neuroleptic drugs are generally prescribed for psychiatric disorders, as well as for some gastrointestinal and neurological disorders.

Signs and Symptoms

Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements.  Features of the disorder may include grimacing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering and pursing, and rapid eye blinking.  Rapid movements of the arms, legs, and trunk may also occur.  Impaired movements of the fingers may appear as though the patient is playing an invisible guitar or piano.

Risk factors for Tardive Dyskinesia:

Nutrients

Manganese Requirement may increase risk of Tardive Dyskinesia Manganese Requirement

Administration of the trace mineral manganese (at 15mg per day) may prevent the development of tardive dyskinesia and higher amounts (up to 60mg per day) may reverse tardive dyskinesia that has already developed.  [Manganese in dyskinesias.  Am J Psychiatry 1976; 133: p.105, Am J Psychiatry 1997; 134: p.1448]

Tardive Dyskinesia suggests the following may be present:

Nutrients

Tardive Dyskinesia often suggests Manganese Requirement Manganese Requirement

Administration of the trace mineral manganese (at 15mg per day) may prevent the development of tardive dyskinesia and higher amounts (up to 60mg per day) may reverse tardive dyskinesia that has already developed.  [Manganese in dyskinesias.  Am J Psychiatry 1976; 133: p.105, Am J Psychiatry 1997; 134: p.1448]

Recommendations for Tardive Dyskinesia:

Drug

GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate) may help with Tardive Dyskinesia GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate)

GHB has been reported to help control tardive dyskinesia symptoms.

Hormone

Melatonin often helps with Tardive Dyskinesia Melatonin

A double-blind study demonstrated that 10mg of melatonin given at 8pm for 6 weeks is an effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia, although the magnitude of the effect was only modest.  Other natural substances that have been reported to improve tardive dyskinesia include vitamin E, manganese and vitamin B6.  It is possible that using these compounds in combination would be more effective than using any one individually.  [Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58: pp.1049-52]

Mineral

Manganese may help with Tardive Dyskinesia Manganese

See the link between Tardive Dyskinesia and Melatonin.

Vitamins

Vitamin E may help with Tardive Dyskinesia Vitamin E

See the link between Tardive Dyskinesia and Melatonin.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) may help with Tardive Dyskinesia Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

See the link between Tardive Dyskinesia and Melatonin.

KEY

Weak or unproven link: may increase risk of
Weak or unproven link:
may increase risk of
Strong or generally accepted link: often suggests
Strong or generally accepted link:
often suggests
May be useful: may help with
May be useful:
may help with
Moderately useful: often helps with
Moderately useful:
often helps with